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Workers, Workers II, Workers III

August 27th, 2014

I had the pleasure of attending United Geeks of Gaming’s Game Designer Sessions event last night, and play testing the latest (third) iteration of a game whose working title has always been “workers”. I realized after a couple of games that the rules were a little “fuzzy”, seeing as how they’ve never been formally written down, and decided that some kind of documentation was in order… Hence this blog post. (Half rules formalization, half designer diary.)

Workers was initially conceived as a “born digital” board game with the central mechanic that there are a variable number of “resource pools” in the game, and every round each pool’s count of available resources is incremented by one. The name stems from it being a very light “worker placement” game, with the initial version allowing for only one action taken (worker placed) per turn. I’ll get into the various specific actions available when I go into details about each version of the game below.

The only other shared mechanic for all the versions of the game has been the turn / round mechanism. Each round a starting player is indicated, every player takes an action (or two) for their turn in clockwise order, and then the starting player indicator is passed to the next player (also in clockwise order).

Workers “One”
Workers Screen Shot - game startThe initial version of this game remains the only one for which there is a (completed) digital prototype. I completed a very quick and dirty app to “prove out” the game mechanics in an evening or two of work and subsequently sent it to some of my TestFlight users for feedback and testing. The prototype was “successful” in that it convinced me more work was needed, but ultimately had quite a few design flaws, which I’ll detail in a minute.

As you may or may not be able to understand from the screenshot, there are 5 available pools of resource (yes, a hard-coded number, even though I knew from the beginning that I wanted it to be variable), as well as hard-coded two-players (with their resource counts on either side of the screen). In the center are all the available actions, and under the main resource pools (which double as buttons for taking the corresponding collection actions) are action buttons for selling each combination of two resource. This version has a selling mechanic whereby you can sell pairs of different-colored resources for the value shown on each pair. Between rounds, not only do the number of resources in each “pool” increment, but the point values for selling each combination are also incremented every round. When a player took a selling action they automatically sold all possible combinations of the two resources for the point value shown. (So if they had 3 green and 2 blue, and took the green/blue selling action when it was worth 5 points, the would end up with 10 points and 1 remaining green resource.) After a sale action, the value for that combination is reset to zero.

Available actions (one per turn):

  • collect all of one resource pool
  • sell a combination of resources

The game lasted a set number of rounds. (15 here, although I experimented with different values.)

Reasons this version is a failure:

  • Replayability: essentially this game played the same no matter how many times you played it. This was pretty boring and led to an…
  • Optimal strategy: it turns out, the best way to play this game is to keep collecting resources, whatever pool has the most, until the last two or three rounds of the game, then sell for the highest possible point combination. Boring and stupid. I could possibly mitigate this by capping either point values for selling, or total number of resources, either per player or per pool. Ultimately I never implemented either, and instead moved on to working on…

Workers II
The next version of the game was conceived to “solve” some of the design problems in the fist game by adding variability (via a game board), as well as removing the complex in-game scoring (the entire “selling” mechanic). I don’t remember whether removing in-game scoring was a goal in and of itself, or whether it was primarily meant to facilitate paper prototyping. I took this version to my first Game Designer Sessions meetup, (quite a number of months ago). The game was played at that time with decks of cards with different colored backs for each resource pool.

The “game board” consists of an empty grid at the beginning of the game. Grid dimensions (as well as “number of resource pools”, “starting player resources”, and “starting resources in each pool”) are meant to be variable for each game.

Scores weren’t known/calculated until the end of the game, when all the spots in the grid were filled with resources. I played with a couple of formulas for scoring (see below), but in general, I wanted the more groups and the larger the groups to have higher point values at the end.

Available actions (again, choose one):

  • take a pool of resources
  • play a single resource from your resources into the game board

Problem:

  • One issue became evident right away, and that was lack of incentive to be the player who plays onto the game grid. After one play test, the player who sat back and hoarded resources was the clear victor. If I remember right, I believe we played a second game after the first and changed the “play on the board” action to take the resource from the pool rather than from your hand. Additionally, you got to take one resource from the pool into your hand as part of that action. I came up with another possible solution on the fly last night.

Workers III
The version I brought last night had basically one new mechanic: Every player started with a “x2″ (times two) card face-up in front of them. There were two ways you could use this card, but when you did, you turned it face-down, and those actions were no longer available to you. I also play tested this version of the game with colored cubes for resources, which I felt was more visible (at a glance) than had been the case with using decks of cards, and had the added benefit of keeping the game board size considerably smaller. (I drew the game board out as well as “spots” for 4 resource pools on a single sheet of graph paper.)

Possible actions:

  • take all of one pool of resources
  • place a cube from your resources onto the game board
  • use your “x2″ action to increase the subsequent pool increment by one additional cube per turn (this could stack if multiple players did it)
  • use your “x2″ action to place a cube on top of a cube already on the game grid (increasing the size of that group by one without taking up a spot on the board)

We played a relatively quick game with 4 players, 4 resources, and a 4×4 grid, but less than halfway into the game I remembered the problem discovered in the playtesting of Workers II. I let the game play out, but suggested we play another game where you take two actions per turn, but your second action has to be a placement on the game board. One player left, so we played 3-players, 4-resources, on a 4×4 grid, but everyone started with one of each resource. I feel like this went pretty well, but still “needed something”.

Possible scoring mechanisms for multiple variable-sized groups:

  • group-size times group-size added together
  • group size added together times number of groups
  • Fibonacci values for each group totaled, times number of groups

I have lots of ideas for Workers IV. I’ll post back here when I get a chance to try any of them out!

Catchup v.0.9.1 & v.0.9.3 – release notes

August 15th, 2014

Screen Shot 2014-08-07 at 2.46.50 PMCatchup version 0.9.1 hit the app store earlier this week. Here are the notes that shipped with that version:

v.0.9.1
* russian localization
* german localization
* settings screen: delete local saved game when changing manual AI level
* fixed a bug with tutorial step 3 not getting displayed
* made popover text scrollable if necessary
* translated a few more strings for all localizations

new in 0.8.x
* traditional chinese localization
* added HSB sliders to color screen, cleaned up UI
* fixed crash in iOS 6

I have been learning a lot with this release, namely about how much extra work localization entails, but Game Center async code stuff also. In fixing a bug at the last minute related to determining whether a Game Center game was still valid (specifically, it goes through and checks all the players to make sure their “match outcome” isn’t set), I introduced another bug, this one making Game Center invitations completely fail, as the match outcome is in an “unknown” state for those, since the invited player hasn’t accepted it yet at that point. Apologies to all the folks who ran into this!

A few minutes ago I submitted build v.0.9.3 to fix this issue. The complete release notes are as follows:

This build fixes a really horrible bug with Game Center “invite” games ending as soon as they began. My apologies!!!

Thank you very much for playing Catchup!

v.0.9.3 details
* fixed “invite” games ending as soon as they are created
* number of “your turn” games is sometimes incorrect, (I need to reset all helper arrays when the UI opens)
* crashing bug when you delete an async game in which it is your turn, start a new one, then click next game after taking your turn (need to re-create all the arrays in the async helper)
* swapped positions of share and close on the game over screen.
* added a new “use english instead of XXX” button for non-english localizations
* lots of fixes for Dutch translation text, some english ones
* credit for Dutch translator in English localization

v.0.9.2
* dutch (nl) translation
* minor change to make one of the tutorial steps a bit more consistently worded

I did use the official form to request an “expedited review”. I have had good results with that in the past, but also know someone who had it “not work” recently, so we shall see.

Catchup Postmortem – after one weekend

August 11th, 2014

iOS Simulator Screen shot Jul 29, 2014, 6.16.46 PMMy latest game release, Catchup came out for iOS last Thursday, and I thought I’d write a bit about my experience developing it.

Stats

First up, how’s it doing? Well, despite a surprise conversation with Apple the Friday before launch, we didn’t get an app store feature. I could show you the typical “long tail” graph, but if you’ve seen any of them before, you know exactly what it looks like. We started with a day of 88 sales, (this at $2.99), followed it up with 34, 26, and 16 sales yesterday. I’m hoping we have a boost again today because it’s no longer the weekend, but essentially, I do not have high hopes. The game’s designer, Nick Bentley, did a great job writing about the game, and making a lot of noise about it in the weeks/days before launch. I definitely credit his efforts for the downloads we did get.

The app ended up climbing to #51 in the “top paid board games” category of the app store.

Reactions / Responses

I think partly because only folks who really care about Abstract Strategy games for iOS have even heard about it, Catchup has had a really great response so far. We’ve got about 12 ratings in the app store, and all but 1 are 5-star. Here are some quotes from the handful of reviews:

“Great implementation of an indie boardgame. The controls are very easy and there are many customization options. The AI has a wide range of levels so it is nice to play at low or high levels of skill.”

“This is definitely one of those games you learn something new every time you play. App is well designed for it and runs really smoothly.”

And some more quotes from around the web:

“Wow. This is beautiful! I thought the ai was crap until i found the manual setting for it… I got pommelled at level 20. The whole ap experience is really very impressive. Nicely minimal and functional… The way i like my abstracts.” – Facebook user

“I like the minimal but pleasantly functional interface.” – BGG user

And I saved my favorite public quotes for last, from Touch Arcade forum user Nachtfischer:

“This is simply brilliant. Just as clean and efficient as the implementation of For The Win was, but even better, with asynchronous online play, dynamically adjusting (and very good!) AI and all kinds of stats you could ever want (it even has a stat for “times you checked the stats screen”, I felt a little caught there, haha).

The game itself is a beloved board game. It has incredibly simple rules, but a ton of emergent complexity, which makes it very elegant – easy to learn, hard to master indeed. There’s a lot of depth beneath the surface here.

It might not look like something special, but if you really love games (and not just semi-related crafts such as audiovisual spectacle, storytelling, Skinner Box mechanisms or whatever), depth and challenge, then you should definitely buy this without a doubt.”

…later, he posted:

“After playing some more, it looks like this is probably going to be my favorite app release of the year so far!”

What could I have done better?

These post-mortems typically have a section for “things I could have done better”, right? But as far as I’m concerned I could have done everything better, so consider all the rest of the headings below a minor subset of bullet points in that overwhelmingly long list.

Beta Testing & Bug fixing

When I decided we should definitely do a beta test, I think I had the right idea. This is a multiplayer application, and I wanted to get people using that multiplayer code ASAP, both to find bugs, but also to gauge the user experience and figure out what I could be doing better. I seriously under-estimated the time needed to run a beta test, (both to find people, and get them playing it, as well as respond / record / react to their suggestions). And then I ended up starting it about two weeks later than intended.

Here’s what I did: I put up a quick google form to collect interested people, then sat on that list for about three weeks. (I’d meant to let it accumulate for maybe a week, but I was still fixing stuff!) When I finally picked users, I basically just sent promo codes to all the ones in the US (because I have evidence that the promo codes only work for US app store users), and who also indicated they would give feedback even if they didn’t like the game. Along with the promo codes, I also sent them a link to a form to collect feedback. The responses were okay, but nothing super revelatory. They definitely helped me find bugs, but the bulk of good UX feedback came from a single individual who would probably have tested the app without our running a beta test at all. (More about that below.)

In short, I still feel like it was extremely useful. It was more useful in terms of finding async bugs, but I could probably have played more games with my handful of friends who had it to get that kind of feedback. If I’d had about two or three more weeks, I think it would have been great to have run more organized play sessions with the beta testers, and perhaps that would have led to more valuable feedback.

Never enough time (or, Things I Never Got Around To Doing)

I really wish I’d spent another week or two polishing the app. In particular, there are some async features I really meant to write in the last month or so of development and just never got around to doing. The main one (which is definitely still on my plate) is opening each individual game when the user opens the app from a notification. I might still get to sneak that into the next release, which is primarily a bug fix release meant to fix Game Center invitations, which I broke in the current app store build (while fixing another bug, of course).

I also wish I’d spent more time working with Nick on promoting the game. I basically let him run with it, and didn’t even hold up my end of the deal by writing a blog post every week until release. (Although this was more a promise to myself rather than a promise to him.) I actually brainstormed a HUGE list of posts I could write, and then only ended up writing a single blog post four weeks before launch, and then finally writing a “release notes” post the day of launch.

Metagame Progression

I’m a big fan of games giving you a solid reason to keep playing. Just about the only thing Catchup does in that regard is show you the level of the AI player, and how that increases/decreases after each game you win or lose. There are also a bunch of Game Center Achievements. While I was implementing the achievements, it occurred to me to space them out so you wouldn’t get a bunch of them after winning one game. So a lot of the achievements are actually dependent on reaching a certain level of AI player. It only occurred to me belatedly (maybe a week before launch) that it would have been really cool to point out that achievement progression in some kind of “campaign screen”, or at the very least in popover messaging after you reach a level where that achievement is available. I have really given this almost no thought, but it feels like something that’s lacking to me.

Programmer UI / UX

Screen Shot 2012-12-11 at 3.26.20 PMI’ve written a bunch about how long it took me to make Catchup… and talked about some of the reasons, but there is maybe one reason that I don’t think I’ve talked about yet. Mainly, it didn’t even occur to me until today, but essentially, the UI changed quite a bit in various iterations of Catchup. And each one of those iterations took some time. To the right you can see the first (totally playable!) version. Obviously, I knew this was going to change, but if I’d known by how much, and how well the app was going to do on release, I might have been more okay with just releasing that version. (OK, probably not really.)

As someone who presented at GDC this year on UX, you’d think I know a thing or two about it. But the not-so-secret truth is that I really don’t. I can probably fake it better than most, but when someone who really does know a lot about UX gives you honest feedback about it, it just becomes super clear that you don’t know jack. That person for me was Nate Weiner (of Pocket / Read it Later fame). When I got his email, it was one of those moments where you realize you’ve been doing something wrong all along. Fortunately, he was kind enough to preface it by saying that none of them were things he would allow to delay launch. Anyway, here’s a list of UX stuff that I could really have done better. (Over half of these points were made originally by Nate in that aforementioned email.)

  • all the popover menus — in particular, I remove the nav bar when I show ‘em, and not only does that look weird, but it’s the cause of a number of bugs.
  • replacing the “default” Game Center UI — This is another one that, surprise, surprise, would have fixed a number of bugs. In particular, if someone “swipes to delete” a game from the default Game Center UI, your app is not notified, and (AFAIK) there is really no way (no status change even!) to detect that the delete has happened. Plus, it looks like butt. Would have been a lot of work tho.
  • Onboarding / tutorial — I sorta knew I was doing this the “easy way”. Even though it’s an interactive tutorial, I basically show all my messages on a popover that doesn’t change contextually. I should have been highlighting all the things the tutorial talks about (and just assumes you will be able to find as soon as you close the popover).
  • Game Over Screen — Similar to the tutorial popover, the game over screen could have been made contextually. In particular, it’s been suggested that it should at the very least highlight the group that won the game. (And this should be fairly easy to do, I just wish I’d thought of that before I made the current version of the game over screen!)
  • the Color picker screen — This screen just really blows. I’m happy with how it LOOKS, but it’s not at all obvious how it functions. And there is literally nowhere in the app that explains it. I should probably add a help popover at the very least, but that hasn’t even made the TODO list yet. (OK, now it has.)
  • the Game Settings screen — I really tried to make this screen as flexible as possible, but I think there are probably significantly clearer ways to present and allow you to change the AI level. It gets a little better in one of the updates that hasn’t been approved yet, but it’s definitely still a pain point, I think.
  • the game screen itself — I would love to still include Game Center icons on this screen. I do also feel like it could better (more clearly) indicate whose turn it is.

When I estimate client work, I always emphasize how much less work there will be for me if the graphic designer has already completed their work by the time I begin. I don’t know why it didn’t occur to me that it would of course take longer for me to do that UX and graphic design myself. Well, if you’d asked, I might have told you it was true, but nobody asked, and I just kept plugging away.

Conclusion

I hope someone finds this useful. Thanks for reading.

EDIT(s): Edited to clarify some points, directly name Nate Weiner, and add references to the “top paid board game” category numbers.

Catchup v.0.8.1 now available in the Apple App Store

August 7th, 2014

Catchup - Abstract StrategyThe day is finally here, and my latest game, Catchup has been released for iOS. The game is a two-player abstract strategy game, with asynchronous multiplayer via Game Center.

Here is the app store description:

Catchup is a simple game of surprising turnarounds.

Can you have the largest group at the end of the game? Connect your hexes to master this beautiful abstract strategy game.

Features:
- an interactive tutorial to teach you how to play
- a challenging AI opponent whose difficulty changes as you play
- online turn-based multiplayer via Game Center
- two-player pass-and-play on the same device
- beautiful and haunting music by Tori Kamal
- minimalist graphics with customizable colors
- GameCenter Leaderboards & Achievements
- simple and easy to learn rules and gamplay
- difficult to master strategy

Here are all the rules:
1. One player plays all the hexes of one color and the other player plays all the hexes of the other color. The first player begins by claiming 1 empty hex for their color.

2. Starting with the second player, each player must claim 1 or 2 hexes on their turn.

3. If the largest group of hexes at the end of a turn is larger than the largest group of hexes at the beginning of that turn (regardless of color), the next player may claim up to 3 hexes on their turn. (This does not apply after the first player claims a single hex in step 1 above.)

4. The game ends when the board is full. The player with the largest group wins. If the players’ largest groups are the same size, compare their second-largest groups, and so on, until you come to a pair which aren’t the same size. Whoever owns the larger of the two wins.

Catchup is an original Board Game designed by Nick Bentley.

For posterity, here’s the “What’s new in this version” text for the last few versions (because I’ve been submitting all these versions to Apple for approval, these are actually visible in the app store if you dig):

What’s new in Version 0.8.1:
- Spanish, Simplified Chinese, and French localization
- Added a link to the game rules from the game menu
- Lots of bugs fixed in prep for launch!

What’s new in Version 0.7:
- Fixed crippling bug starting Game Center async games.
- Localized Rules text.
- A few other minor formatting and bug fixes.
- …more hexagons!

Catchup Release Date, Trailer

July 15th, 2014

I’m happy to announce here that Catchup will be released on August 7th, 2014.

Last wednesday I put together the gameplay trailer (above) for Catchup and showed it at our local IGDA Twin Cities meeting. I’ll be showing the game again tomorrow night at our Multiplayer Mixer. Then next month, the week after launch, I’ll also be heading to GenCon in Indianapolis to show off the game on their expo floor.

This is definitely the most work I’ve put into a game. (If I were following my standard launch M.O., I’d have already pushed the release button in iTunes Connect.) This time around I’m trying to follow more “game release best practices”. This is mostly because I feel like this game deserves more attention. There are a couple of reasons for this, and the first is that it’s an absolutely great board game that I really like playing! Of course every game I make is one that I want to play, but it’s extra true in this case. I can’t wait to have dozens of async games going of this. (One of my beta testers has already reported playing over 25 games in one sitting, which speaks well toward engagement. Don’t worry if you signed up to be a beta tester, we’re going to be starting the “official” beta testing push sometime later this week.) The second reason for giving this extra marketing is that I think this app is some of my best work. It’s definitely well into the realm of the quality and polish that I would prepare for client work. I’ve been trying to squash every bug as soon as I see it. (There are of course one or two that I haven’t had time to fix yet, but nothing major.)

Another contributing factor to officially spending more (time, effort, & money) to market this game is that Nick Bentley, the game’s designer, has committed to doing so also. He’s already started writing about the release, offering an extremely generous “stretch goal” if we can reach 10,000 downloads. He’s going to be helping out with trying to get reviewers to write about it, and joining me at GenCon. My feeling is that getting 10k downloads is basically next-to-impossible unless we get an app store feature. But if we can get there, I have lots of ideas for additional features, including a very cool new game mode Nick has already been putting some thought into balancing and designing. I guess another reason for all this buzz and pre-release is so I can play that new game mode. I hope we can make it happen.

Color changing in Catchup

July 8th, 2014

Previously on Chesstris…

I have already written a couple of times in the last year about color customization in iOS. My post on how to change the color of a transparent image on iOS is actually one of my most popular posts (based on “organic” traffic coming from google). The other instance was when I posted the slides from my talk about Customizing iOS UI (subtitled “Fonts, Controls & Color”). Neither post stated this explicitly, but basically the main reason any of this was relevant to me was for use in Catchup, a forthcoming game release which will allow you to customize the colors of the entire application. Here are some screenshots from Catchup’s game screen, in the three “default” color schemes:

IMG_2206IMG_2204IMG_2205

Color changing with [Style sharedInstance]

In the beginning of the project, after implementing a centralized “style” class, (as I sometimes do, usually to facilitate getting a font), I realized that it would be relatively easy to implement color customization throughout the app. That “relatively easy” feature turned into dozens of hours of extra work, and I’m going to go into detail about some of those hours here.

The basic technique was to keep track of four UIColor properties in my style singleton, loading them at application startup, and then making sure that all of my UIViewController subclasses made sure to set all the colors appropriately in viewDidLoad or viewWillAppear:. This necessitated lots of (otherwise often unnecessary) IBOutlets, but that itself was not a lot of extra work. It was definitely more work to just decide which of the four colors in the scheme should be used for each UI element, but I would not consider even that to have been a pain point.

navigation bar hell

So… I was taking my time with Catchup. Early on it was going to be a quick project, but then I decided it was a great game, and this was a showpiece for my board game conversion prowess! I wanted to do it right. That meant it was going to be done when I felt it was done. Long story short, I thought I was maybe half-finished with development when iOS 7 was announced (with its complete graphic design overhaul).

Screen Shot 2013-02-18 at 9.29.38 AMThis wasn’t necessarily a bad thing! I’d already decided to go for a flat UI design, (especially because I was drawing nearly all the graphics programmatically!) So the aesthetic of the app didn’t need to change, but in those early days, I hadn’t been using navigation bars. I was using a navigation controller in the project, but pushing and popping the view controllers with custom buttons everywhere (to the right is an early screenshot from that era). This made sense if I wanted a flat design in iOS 6, but iOS 7 was flat by default. During the iOS 7 beta, I spent an hour or two experimenting with the look of the new nav bars, and really liked how the look of the game changed with a consistent iOS 7 style nav bar.

So I bit the bullet and ripped out all my custom buttons and implementing a more traditional navigation bar based navigation. For whatever reason, (somewhere between translucency settings, barTintColor vs tintColor, not to mention Extended Edges) it ended up taking a long time to master the nuances of the new iOS 7 navigation bars. It was a lot of work just figuring out the best way to arrange my storyboard elements, but additionally I needed to change all the nav bar colors based on my color scheme! I tried a lot of different techniques before I settled on the ones I think are definitely “working” in the app today. First I tried using the appearance proxy, but that was super problematic and the colors seemed to be cached weirdly. At one point I thought I needed to style the nav bar in every UIViewController subclass, but eventually I figured out that all I needed to do was call this code on app launch (and any time the color scheme changes):

	// tintColor for the whole app (status & nav bar)
	NSArray *ver = [[UIDevice currentDevice].systemVersion componentsSeparatedByString:@"."];
	BOOL isiOS7 = ([[ver objectAtIndex:0] intValue] >= 7);
	if (isiOS7) {
		// tint color affects the navigation bar links
		[[[UIApplication sharedApplication] delegate] window].tintColor = fontColor;
		[[(UINavigationController*)[[[UIApplication sharedApplication] delegate] window].rootViewController navigationBar] setBarTintColor:[Ketchup_StyleHelper color2]];
	}
	else {
		// ios 6
		[[(UINavigationController*)[[[UIApplication sharedApplication] delegate] window].rootViewController navigationBar] setTintColor:[Ketchup_StyleHelper color2]];
		[[UIApplication sharedApplication] setStatusBarStyle:UIStatusBarStyleDefault animated:YES];
		[[(UINavigationController*)[[[UIApplication sharedApplication] delegate] window].rootViewController navigationBar] setTitleTextAttributes:@{UITextAttributeTextColor: [UIColor whiteColor]}];
	}
}

As you can see, a lot of this was to keep my backward compatibility with iOS 6, but unfortunately that meant one really big compromise — there would be no flat nav bar aesthetic in iOS 6. I’ve made my peace with that. The app looks pretty horrible in iOS 6, but it’s totally functional, and… oh well.

One additional thing I spent time on was changing the status bar text to white or black, depending on the darkness of the tint color. This only applies to iOS 7, and looks like this:

		// dark or light determines styles for status bar and nav bar
		UIColor *colorThatMatters = self.neutral;
		CGFloat hue = 0.0f, saturation = 0.0f, brightness = 0.0f, alpha = 0.0f;
		BOOL success = [colorThatMatters getHue:&hue saturation:&saturation brightness:&brightness alpha:&alpha];
		if (success) {
			if (brightness < 0.7) {
				[[UIApplication sharedApplication] setStatusBarStyle:UIStatusBarStyleLightContent animated:YES];
				[[(UINavigationController*)[[[UIApplication sharedApplication] delegate] window].rootViewController navigationBar] setTitleTextAttributes:@{UITextAttributeTextColor: [UIColor whiteColor]}];
			}
			else {
				[[UIApplication sharedApplication] setStatusBarStyle:UIStatusBarStyleDefault animated:YES];
				[[(UINavigationController*)[[[UIApplication sharedApplication] delegate] window].rootViewController navigationBar] setTitleTextAttributes:@{UITextAttributeTextColor: [UIColor blackColor]}];
			}
		}

Watching the status bar when you manually change that color from dark to light is actually pretty cool, so time well spent, IMO.

Actually Changing Colors – compromises, or lack thereof

Once I decided color schemes were in, there were a number of additional questions. Would I implement a “fixed” (hard coded, but changeable later, of course) set of color schemes and allow the user to select from those? Or would I give the user rope to hang themselves and allow them to change each individual color willy-nilly? (If the former, I needed to pick some good ones, but it would also give me the option of in-app purchase for additional ones, or “unlocking” them via achievements or something.) And finally, could I allow them to choose a single color, and make a scheme programmatically from that color?

IMG_2203Eventually I decided I’m a big fan of the infinite color schemes, so I definitely wanted to give the user a color picker. That didn’t leave reason to do in-app purchase or unlocking, so that was out. Right now there are three default color schemes, but you can change each of the four colors at any time. I also implemented choosing the scheme from a single color without much trouble (you can see a purple version of that on the right), which allowed me to also throw in a button to change the scheme to match any of the 5C colors. I spent some time trying to figure out if there was a way to get at the color of a user’s phone which would allow me to default to their 5C color, but I couldn’t find a sure-fire way, and I don’t like the single color schemes quite as much anyway, so I dropped that after an hour or so of googling.

For the really curious, here’s the code I’m using to generate my four-color schemes from a single color:

	CGFloat lightBrightness = 1.0f;
	CGFloat darkBrightness = 0.2;
	CGFloat neutralBrightness = 0.6;
	CGFloat baseBrightness = 0.8;
	CGFloat hue = 0.0f, saturation = 0.0f, brightness = 0.0f, alpha = 0.0f;
	BOOL success = [newBase getHue:&hue saturation:&saturation brightness:&brightness alpha:&alpha];
	if (success) {
		self.color1 = [UIColor colorWithHue:hue saturation:(saturation/1.5f) brightness:darkBrightness alpha:alpha];
		self.color2 = [UIColor colorWithHue:hue saturation:(saturation/1.5f) brightness:lightBrightness alpha:alpha];
		self.color3 = [UIColor colorWithHue:hue saturation:saturation brightness:neutralBrightness alpha:alpha];
		self.color4 = [UIColor colorWithHue:hue saturation:saturation brightness:baseBrightness alpha:alpha];
	}

RSColorPicker vs NOT RSColorPicker

There are a few open source color pickers out there for iOS. After I found one I liked pretty well, I didn’t spend much time looking around. (I found out later I actually know someone who maintains one, and felt slightly guilty for not using it.) Unfortunately, the one I picked, RSColorPicker, while it had a decent interface and an API that I liked, really ended up being a pain in the ass to use. I updated the code to work with a new version of it at least twice, and both times spent at least a day wrestling with it. Oddly, my initial integration probably only took a day, so my initial impression was that it was great. I think the first time was when I decided Catchup should be universal. Turns out the color picker didn’t handle @2x very well, so it was slow on iPad. Supposedly this had been fixed… but it wasn’t as easy as just updating to the latest, there were some hacks that had to be applied. I lost at least a day.

Then another time when I switched to using Cocoapods for the project, I figured this was perfect, RSColorPicker was a cocoapod! Only, no it wasn’t. They had a podfile in there, but the project didn’t use tags, and as far as I could tell it had never been added properly to the pods repository. I’d probably totally forgotten what a pain it was to update the previous time, so after a day or so, I threw up my hands in frustration and ripped the whole project out. (I had been running into compiler issues trying to just use the latest version, and it was starting to feel like amateur-hour to me.)

IMG_2201I looked around briefly for another open source project. (Evaluated my friend’s picker, but the UI wasn’t as customizable as I wanted.) Eventually I just thought to myself, “Can’t I use an image and just pick whatever color the user’s finger lands on?” That’s the solution I went with, more or less implementing the colorAtPosition: method outlined in this stack overflow answer. After all that RSColorPicker hassle, my new solution took only a few hours to implement. (You can see the picker open to the right.)

coming to color conclusions

It remains to be seen whether any of this work was “worth it”, but I definitely enjoy showing off the color changing feature because it demos well. I guess that’s basically what I’m doing in this post. Thanks for reading!

Watching videos — WWDC, Swift, POP, and grid-based games

June 5th, 2014

This week has been all about learning, and specifically about watching videos to learn. Mostly because this week is Apple’s big WWDC conference. The list of developer-specific stuff they’ve announced this week is perhaps slightly larger than usual (including a new programming language called Swift — more on that later), and I have been watching a ton of talks pouring out of San Francisco in video form. (Special thanks to Apple for releasing them so expediently!)

Normally I am fairly un-enthusiastic about watching videos to learn. I’m much more of a do-er than a view-er. I’ve got to be working with the code in order to absorb a new programming language, so the Swift videos in particular have been somewhat frustrating. I did spend most of Tuesday with the OSX 10.10 and Xcode 6 betas, and Swift specifically, but after spending a lot of unnecessary time tripping over syntax, grammar, (and copious crashes) decided to go back to videos (and getting some actual work done).

My impressions of Swift are pretty mixed. On one hand, I love that they’re trying to make a language that is simultaneously more accessible and also less prone to bugs. That is as fantastic and commendable as it is self-serving. On the other hand, I’m not yet convinced it’s going to be an instant switch for me. I had lots of little niggling problems with the syntax. For example, I’m not sure the benefit of declaring strongly typed variables using generic keywords (var and let). In the c-based syntax languages I know and love, you declare the variable with the type. So in swift:

var view = UIView()

vs Objective-C:

UIView *view = [UIView new];

Now, the first example isn’t ambiguous or anything, but how about this one:

var views = UIView[]()

This is how you declare an array of UIView objects. I do like that it will always (and can ONLY) be an array filled with UIView objects, but I do think it’d be incredibly easy to miss the brackets. Overall though, most of the problems I had weren’t with the language itself, but with the tools, which I think are just not ready yet. I mostly agree with Austin Zheng when he says (from the comments of his 2048 port to Swift): “Xcode is as unstable as always. The background compiler/code analyzer kept on crashing and restarting itself. Xcode was functional enough to allow the project to be brought to some state of completion. The debugger is horribly broken though.”

All my video learning this week actually started on Monday (while waiting for the WWDC keynote to start) with watching Facebook’s video on building the paper app. This is also the one in which they announced their open-source animation framework pop. (And was recommended to me to learn about why it might be useful.) At an hour and a half, it’s a long video, but worth watching not just for the pop stuff (which is absolutely interesting, particularly if you already use Core Animation in your code), but for a multitude of other insights into how Facebook writes it’s apps. (There is some seriously interesting iOS engineering going on over there, something I did not expect given their history and track record, particularly in the quality department.)

Finally, yesterday (after fully maxing out on more WWDC videos), I randomly stumbled onto a talk about SpriteKit and grid-based games. The first half of the talk, by Scott Kim goes into great detail about several different kinds of grid-based puzzle games (on iOS specifically). He more or less breaks the talk into categories organized by gesture, which I think is an arbitrary distinction. (I’ve talked before about how I think the best games provide both tap and drag control schemes that are not incompatible.) Otherwise I think he does a really great job with the topic, and while it’s nowhere near comprehensive, it’s a very nice introduction / survey of the topic. This is very close to a talk that I’ve been thinking seriously about writing. (I first mentioned this idea in a previous blog post.) But since I haven’t (yet) written my taxonomy of grid-based games, Kim’s talk is, at the moment, much better than mine.

Catchup for iOS – the last 10%

May 20th, 2014

I just looked back through older blog posts on here, and realized that I have not talked about Catchup as much as I should be talking about it given that it’s my next big game release. (I didn’t even have a blog category for Catchup until I added one just now!)

The game is really starting to shape-up and near completion. A few weeks ago I posted the vine above of the new hex particles when I got those working, and I don’t know why I didn’t post that here. My list of bugs is basically just down to one, and the list of features I want to add is also miniscule. Oddly, my TODO is still super long, but the only real tasks that I’ve committed to completing before release are: 1) Flush out achievements (there are a few in there right now, but potential for so many more), and 2) really hammer on the async code to make sure I’m utilizing all of apple’s push notifications to their full effect. This second one includes writing some code to show the async move as it comes from the server, if you happen to be looking at the game screen when that happens. It’s an edge case that a lot of apps ignore, but I feel a relatively frequent use-case, given the short-timeframe nature of turns in Catchup. Also, it will allow you to essentially play games in real-time, even though it’s still async code through-and-through.

One question I ask myself a lot is why it has taken me this long to get Catchup this near completion. There are lots of factors, of course, but I’d initially scoped the game (back when it was Ketchup) as a very quick-and-dirty conversion, really just the simplest game I could think of that would allow me to write the GameCenter asynchronous code that I’d been wanting to write. But after I got Tysen Streib to agree to help write the AI, and as soon as the game was playable against that AI, I quickly decided I should really make an attempt to put out a “full featured” board game conversion on my own. This meant a lot of things to me, but psychologically, I think the scope of the game ballooned WAY out of control. For a while there, I really thought I was going to write ALL the features I put in the TODO. If I’d had nothing else to do the entire year, from when I started Catchup in Jan 2013 until now, I might have completed all those features. (Instead, I spent about six or seven months of last year working freelance gigs so I could pay my bills.) I’ve also taken relatively frequent “breaks” to work on other games, mostly game-jam scope games, but I’ve spent over a month at this point working on Action Go, as well as about a week writing universal updates for DrawCade and my Fez Translator.

There are a lot of posts I could write about Catchup for iOS. Here are some ideas for topics:

- Why (else) has it taken me over a year to put this game out? (Short answers, which could all probably be their own blog posts: Polishing a game is hard! Managing scope on a personal project is hard! A “minimum” list of features for successful board game conversions turns out to actually be A LOT of features. And finally — this could probably be its own post — how bugs in your code can move into the realm of psychologically demoralizing and depressing, and possibly keep you from wanting to work on your project.)

- About Color customization, or why you shouldn’t allow your users to customize the colors in your app. (How I did it for Catchup; why it was “easy” but still took up A TON of time; and the trials and tribulations of using an open source library that is poorly written.)

- How catchup uses Generic Game Model. (Which is basically the story of why GGM has hex support at all.)

- About the features that I cut for version 1.0 of Catchup: showing a list of games with visual previews (like in Carcassonne!); ELO for online games; saving of all completed games, and the ability to review them turn by turn; IAP and/or Ad supported version of the game, Player avatars (or even just showing GameCenter avatars in-game). I could talk about how I chose (or basically, for a long time, didn’t choose) which features would “make it”, and which wouldn’t.

- A post about how much money Catchup needs to make for me to break even. (I’ve actually started this post already, but didn’t get too far, as it’s rather a depressing topic.)

- A post about the Game Center asynchronous code, possibly including making my GameCenterAsyncHelper class available publicly.

- A post about convincing other folks to work for nothing on your personal projects. Why it’s generally (I think now) just a bad idea. I suppose this could also be a post about paying for artists versus just making all the art yourself (where I started versus where I ended up).

Let me know in the comments if you really want to see a particular one of these ideas flushed out, or if you have some other specific question!

Quality vs Quantity

May 7th, 2014

Advisable or not, I clicked through this morning from twitter to an article titled Apple Is “Nearly Invisible” On GitHub, But Does It Matter?. As I mentioned in reply, I think there’s some hyperbole there. Specifically, the numbers are being interpreted in a way that spins the article, but I did find the numbers interesting!

I really just wanted to comment longer-form on this one quote from the article:

41% of Android developers said they finish apps in one month or less, while only 36% of iOS and 34% of Windows Phone devs said they could achieve as quickly a turnaround

Now, if it took more effort to make exactly the same application for iOS than I would see that as a problem. But in my experience (and I do have knowledge of several parallel projects for both platforms) the effort is pretty similar. (Some things on either platform take longer on one or the other, but I think it generally averages out.) Now, as any software developer knows, you can either make something good, or you can make something fast… So given that data point, one interpretation of the quote above, at the risk of maybe pissing off some folks, would be that this generally speaks to the quality of the average Android application. Essentially (and again, this is just one possible interpretation), iOS applications might take longer as a trend because more effort is put into making them. Or alternatively, possibly they are just worth more to whoever is funding their development.

thoughts on CCG & LCG apps

April 16th, 2014

Today Hearthstone is finally available worldwide, and I will definitely be spending some time with it on my iPad. I have played it a bit on my desktop, enough to get the feel of it, and decide I wanted to wait until it was available for iPad. (Mostly because that’s where I spend most of my time gaming.)

I’m not really interested in commenting on the F2P mechanics, (since enough has been made elsewhere of how “gentle” they are in Hearthstone, or how “right” Blizzard is getting it), I’m more interested in a study of the game mechanics independent of the monetization strategies (no matter how closely they may be coupled). From what I saw at GDC, Blizzard really spent a lot of time trying to make Hearthstone accessible to the masses. This manifest in a lot of different ways, but essentially they are balancing card abilities and deck compositions (for pre-built decks you encounter and use early in the game) to help new players.

I never really got into Magic the Gathering. I know there will be some of you that stop reading at this point, but I guess what turns me off about it (and, realizing this, the entire genre of deck-based-fighting-games) is the direct conflict. Most of the card abilities deal with combat. Dealing damage to your opponent is a (if not THE) central mechanic, and I guess I just find that emphatically boring.

A month or two ago, I did get pretty into Card Wars, a LLG (CCG?) inspired by an episode of Adventure Time. It was a great episode, and made everyone who saw it (well, everyone I’ve talked to) want to play the game. It’s a lane-based game like Solforge, Spectromancer (or it’s sort of predecessor Kard Combat), or Kongregate’s more recent Tyrant Unleashed.

The first Hearthstone talk I saw at GDC (I saw two) was one about the AI, and I was pretty much entranced by it, loving this slide of the overall architecture:
20140416-162859.jpg

I guess this is another one of those posts where, if I had infinite time, I would dissect the mechanics I like about each of these games, and draw a cool diagram or something, but I don’t have the time, and I’m going to go download Hearthstone now, before I forget.